When can neurofeedback join the clinical armamentarium?


Neurofeedback appears both to improve normal brain function 1 and to treat a wide range of mental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, depression, anxiety, insomnia, autism spectrum disorder, and alcoholism. 2 However, despite a relatively long history, the medical community continues to question the clinical utility of this technique. To earn widespread recognition as evidence-based medicine, neurofeedback must meet three challenges: first, perform at least on par with standard-of-care treatments in randomised controlled trials for each disorder that neurofeedback purports to help; second, consistently outperform highly comparable placebo control conditions (eg, sham neurofeedback); and third, establish a clear mechanism for the claimed therapeutic benefits.

The Lancet Psychiatry